Montsuki Haori Hakama
|Kanji, Kana & Pronunciation|
|Romaji||Monstuki Haori Hakama|
|(n) formal men's kimono ensemble|
Monstuki haori hakama (紋付羽織袴 or 紋付き羽織袴, literally "(kimono) with mon, haori, and hakama"), or kuromontsuki haori hakama (黒紋付羽織袴, black montsuki haori hakama) is the most formal men's wafuku ensemble. It consists of a formal kimono with five mon (monstuki or itsutsumontsuki kimono); hakama; and haori with mon (montsuki haori).
The ensemble had been semi-formal wear for samuari in the Edo period, and came to be the most formal dress for commoners. By the Meiji period it was known as itsutsumon no kuromontsuki haori hakama (五つ紋の黒紋付羽織袴, or five mon black montsuki haori hakama), and was used as formal wear.
Today the monstuki haori hakama ensemble is considered equivalent in formality to morning dress (which consists of a morning coat/tailcoat, waistcoat, and striped trousers) or white tie (also known as evening dress, consisting of a dress coat/swallowtail coat, white stiff collared shirt, white bow tie and white waistcoat, black trousers and top hat). Morning dress is now used in the West almost exclusively for formal daytime weddings, some official government or royal functions, and races such as Royal Ascot. White tie is the most formal Western evening dress for men (its less formal equivalent is black tie). White tie is worn to ceremonial occasions such as state dinners, as well as to very formal balls and evening weddings.
A montsuki haori hakama ensemble is appropriate to wear on ceremonious or highly formal occasions, such as:
- as a groom or a close relative or friend of a groom at a traditional Japanese wedding, or for an engagement
- as a relative or close friend of the deceased at a funeral
- as a performer of traditional Japanese music, singing, or theatre (in some cases the haori is replaced with a kataginu)
- at formal award ceremonies
- for performers of traditional arts, at ceremonies held when adopting a predecessor's artistic/stage name
- formal wear for sumo wrestlers and those connected with the sumo world
The kimono should be of black habotai silk and have five mon. Dyed mon are the most formal; embroidered mon are less formal. Both the kimono and haori should be seasonally appropriate: lined in cooler months, unlined in warmer months. In summer, ro or sha are acceptable. Montsuki kimono and haori in single colours other than black are less formal.
The haori should be of black silk and have five mon. As with the kimono, dyed mon are the most formal. The most formal haori himo are white and flat; other styles and colours are permissible, but are less formal, with the exception of gray, which has been acceptable for funerals since the Meiji period. Tonosama-musubi, with the tufts of the himo facing up near the midsection, is the most formal way of tying the himo; hana-musubi is less formal.
A nishiori kaku-obi in grey or brown is the most formal.
Silk hakama with sendaihira stripes on a black or brown background are the most formal. Other colours or single colour hakama are less formal. Umanori (split) or andon-style hakama are both acceptable. The himo should be tied in a jūnoji or ichomonji musubi.
Both the collar and body of the hadajuban, hanjuban and/or nagajuban are plain white silk. In the case of a hanjuban, a susoyoke (slip) or suteteko (a kind of long undershorts) are worn. The han'eri should be white, but very light blue or gray are also acceptable. For funeral wear in some areas, black or dark gray may also be worn.
- Cane (not required)
- Black cane with black, silver or ivory top.
- White; worn tucked into the obi.
- Hat (not required)
- Black bowler; black fedora; Homburg hat (similar to a trilby or fedora); top hat.
- Rosary beads
- For Buddhist funerals
- White silk
- Pocket watch with chain or other formal watch.